White Mountain Apache

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Cultural History

This tribe believes that they are placed under the White Mountain by their Creator since the beginning of time. Ndee is the name of the people. Their ancestors learned to be that kind and the Ndee people of today got their knowledge from them. Lots of different nations are present nowadays. They are more commonly known as the Western Apache who are related to the San Carlos, Payson, and Camp Verde's people. This nation is closely related to other Apache nations although there are some varieties in their history and culture as well as language. The Apache Nations include the Chiricahua, Mescalero, Jicarrilla, Lipan, and Kiowa-Apache peoples. 

The first time the Europeans encountered them living in their lands, they are still living in bands and family groups. Their homes and farms are along all of the major watercourses namely, the East Fork and North Fork of the White River, on Cedar Creek, Carrizo Creek, Cibecue Creek, Oak Creek, etc. In order for them to live, they farm, grow corn, beans, sunflowers, squash, and other foods. They are also involved in hunting activities. They also gathered wild plant foods. They are also involved in trading, traveling and raiding all over the region of Mexico. The United States Army is known by the Apache people and not the things that they did for them. 

A scouting expedition of over 120 troops into the White Mountains area from Camp Goodwin and Camp Grant to the south has been led by Brevet Colonel (Major) John Green of the U.S. 1st Cavalry in July 1869. These people are killing the Apache members that they meet. They went north up the San Carlos River, across the Black River, and to the White River in the area of the future site of Fort Apache.

The scouts said that they found cornfields with a size of 100 acres along the White River. Escapa who is an Apache chief that the Anglos called Miguel, went to the camp and told Col. Green to come to their village. It was Captain John Barry that he sent there and he ordered him to exterminate the whole village if it really could be. However, when Captain Barry arrived in that village, there were white flags waving at every point and the people entertained him very well by people.  He was not able to do what has been ordered to him because the people were very innocent and they might be guilty of killing them. 

In November, Green met again with the Apache leaders at the White Mountains and agreed upon the establishment of a reservation and military post. He has been directed to the confluence of the White River; that is of the East and North forks. He selected the finest place where they can establish the military post and where he thinks the Indians will live very well. The abandonment of the Fort Apache happened in 1922 and after that Theodore Roosevelt continues to give service to the middle school.

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